[6][7] This superseded the Decree 159 PG-RM of 19 July 1982 (Article 1). They include Bambara, Soninke, Hasanya Arabia, Bomu, Tamasheq, Songhay, Fulfulde, Bozo, Maninkakan, Dogon, Syenara, Mamara, and Xasongaxango. In most scenarios, French speaking Malians acquire it as a second language. Estimates of the number of people who actually speak French are low. They also use sign language to acquire formal education. (Bambara is also very close to the Dyula language (Dyula: Jula or Julakan; French: Dioula), spoken mainly in Côte d'Ivoireand Burkina Faso. The Niger River regularly flooded parts of this dry grassland and savannah, which provided fertile land for agriculture beginning at least 3,500 years ago, an endeavour greatly helped by the region’s adequate annual rainfall. Approximately one-third of all Malians speak Bamana as their mother tongue, and many speak it as a second language. The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, l… Thereafter, they can transition from the indigenous languages to French. The Mali Empire was the largest in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language… They probably spread with the expansion of the Songhay Empire (centered in the cities of Gao and Timbuktu) from the 9th century until the late Middle Ages. The capital is Bamako. The tonal system remains more robust in the Eastern and Southern Mandinka dialects (Tilibo) spoken in the Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Eastern Senegal. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Mali," Laval University, Canada, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Mali&oldid=983437535, Articles containing Bambara-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 06:49. It is also called the Manding Empire or Manden Kurufa.Sundiata Keita started the empire and the empire became famous because its rulers were very rich, especially Mansa Musa I.The Mali Empire had many important cultural effects on West Africa, spreading language, laws and customs along the Niger River. We’re going to look at five: 1. In contract to its empire days, Mali is now … French is part of the standard school curriculum. 42. What were the two main resources of the Mali Empire? Several pieces of archaeological evidence of Iron Age settlements, dating back to the 5th Century BC, have been discovered at Timbuktu. The languages spoken there reflect ancient settlement patterns, migrations, and its long history. Mali’s gold and its use of Arabic is what helped to … Mali had 32 languages, the most common were French and Bambara. a civil war that took place in 1359. On the other hand, the Tebul Sign Language is commonly used in a village in Mali where most people suffer from congenital deafness. pp 215-238. 1993 estimates are that there are only around 9,000 Malian speakers of French as a first language. They owned land, wealth and knowledge. From the 12th Century onward, Timbuktu became a part of the ancient African trade route and flourished greatly with wealth generated by trading ivory, slaves, gold, and salt. Bambara originated from the Kingdom of Segou many centuries ago. The rest of the population spoke the Malian languages as their first language. Swahili. The languages of Africa can be grouped into language “families,” meaning they share a common language ancestor. Besides the national languages, the Ethnologue has a record of 63 languages that are spoken in Mali. The Songhai languages are spoken mainly along the Niger River, from Djenné and Timbuktu in Mali eastward as far as Benin, with extensions into adjacent countries. Bambara and two other very closely related Manding languages Malinke or Maninkakan in the southwest and Kassonke (in the region of Kayes in the west), are among the 13 national languages. It also has a deaf population which uses sign language to communicate. Although there are several languages the official language was French, the mother tongue was Bambara. Answer (1 of 2): Although French is one of two official languages of Mali, it is not as widely used as the other, Bambara, which is understood by as many as six million people. ... One of the factors that contributed to the fall of the empire of Mali was. French is mostly spoken by people who live in the urban centers. These kingdoms included the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. The French language used in Mali was introduced by the French colonialists. Today’s Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. There is a new policy to use Malian languages in the first grades and transition to French. The people of Mali are comprised of several sub-Saharan ethnic groups. Mali rose to the apogee of its power under Mansa Musa (1307–32?). The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. Timbuktu was also a good place for learning. It was retained as an official language when Mali attained its independence in 1960. [2], Almost all people who speak French in Mali speak it as a second language. Thereafter, they can transition fro… The French language used in Mali was introduced by the French colonialists. Facilities for tourism are limited. There are three types of sign languages used in Mali: American Sign Language (ASL), Tebul Sign Language, and Bamako Sign Language. Local languages remain the preferred mode of communication. The Niger River. [8], Anne Lafage. French Today: Language in Its Social Context. By Sharon Omondi on September 27 2017 in Society. According to 2001 census the Mali population numbers just under 30,000 and is divided into seven sub-groups: Khandya Mali, Pondra Mali, Thagoor Mali, Kosalya Mali, Pannavi Mali, Sorukava Mali and Donguradiya Mali. Bambara is used as a trade language in Mali between language groups. The official language is French. ... What language was spoken in Kilwa, Mombasa, and Mogadishu? Estimates of the number of people who actually speak French are low. Figures estimated in 1986 give a number of 386,000 speakers of French in Mali, derived from the numbers of school attendees. The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1235 to 1670. The hypothesis equating Kaba, Kangaba, and the capital of the Mali empire dates back in print to the early French studies of ancient Mali, and particularly to Maurice Delafosse, that prolific writer on West African oral traditions, religion, and languages. French usage is gender weighted as well, with 1984 figures showing 17.5% percent of males speaking French, but only 4.9% of women.[4]. Beginning of eleventh century, Ancient Mali becomes the dominant force in the upper Niger basin. All together 13 of the indigenous languages of Mali have the legal status of national language. The deaf population in Mali used sign language to communicate with each other. Mali has more than ten ethnic groups, including the Bambara (34%), Fulani (15%), Sarakole (11%) and Senufo (10%). It is the 8th largest country in the African continent boasting an area of 1,240,000 km2. Learn more about the Mali empire … Other languages include Tieyozo, Bozo, Bomu, Kagoro and many others. Gold and salt. There are 13 national languages spoken in Mali. There are a number of local languages. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers. The largest ethnic group in Mali is the Mande which are 50% of its total population. While relatively isolated from other African languages, Malagasy has … Timbuktu was then raided and burned. 3 • LANGUAGE The official language of Mali is French. ASL was introduced to Mali by an American missionary known as Andrew Foster. French, which introduced during the colonial period, was retained as the official language at independence and is used in government and formal education. Cereals such as red-s… A profile of the languages in Mali. The Songhay are a small group of languages, of uncertain classification, spoken mainly in Mali and Niger as well as in neighboring countries. These are spoken in North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel (where the Sahara becomes savanna). Bambara (Bambara: Bamanankan), a Manding language (in the Mande family) is said to be spoken by 80% of the population as a first or second language. It enjoys the status of a national language in Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. In its use in schools, there is a new policy which demands that Malian languages should be used to teach students in their first grades. In addition, it is the third largest producer of gold in Africa. Mali is a multilingual country. Language in Mali The official language is French. Ethnologue counts more than 80 languages. Mali is a multilingual country with as many as 49 languages or dialects spoken. continue reading on the next page. The Bamako Sign Language was innovated in the urban centers in the after-work tea circles. Beginning as a series of small successor trading states, Ancient Ghana, the empire grew to encompass the territory between the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Chad, a distance of nearly 1,800 miles. Since it is popular among most Mali people, it is often used in trade. Other language families include Afro-Asiatic, represented by the Berber language Tamasheq and by Arabic, and the Songhay languages, which have traditionally been classified as Nilo-Saharan but may constitute an independent language family. The official language is French. The language is relatively homogeneous, with only slight phonological, lexical, and grammatical variations. Founded by Sundiata Keita, the Mali Empire, also referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was a Mandinka empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1600 AD. [3] French is more understood in urban centres, with 1976 figures showing a 36.7% "Francophone" rate in urban areas, but only an 8.2% rate in rural areas. Hence, the Bambara language is the most widely spoken native language. The largest is the Bambara, accounting for 37% of the population. Figures estimated in 1986 give a number of 386,000 speakers of French in Mali, derived from the numbers of school attendees. There are two other sign languages in Mali. The Mandé people founded several kingdoms in the Sahel.This was a big area that included Mali. Cambridge University Press (1993). According to the Loi 96-049 of 1996 thirteen indigenous languages are recognised by the government as national languages: Bamanankan, Bomu, Bozo, Dɔgɔsɔ, Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic, Mamara, Maninkakan, Soninke, Soŋoy, Syenara, Tamasheq, Xaasongaxanŋo. Fulfulde, spoken throughout West Africa, is a member of the Senegambian branch. The Mali Empire, also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, was an empire in West Africa that lasted from c. 1230 to 1600. Songhai languages, Songhai also spelled Songhay, group of closely related languages generally assumed to constitute the primary branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family. . While the official language of Mali is French, 80% of people speak Bambara and there are at least 40 African languages in use. French is Mali’s official language but Bambara is the most frequently spoken language in Mali. What was very important to the Songhai trade? Songhai and French. 2. A large percentage (80%) of Malians speak Bambara as either their first or second language. Mande spoken by the Soninke people of West Africa. The Gur languages are represented by Bomu on the Bani River of Mali and Burkina Faso. Mali is spoken in tribal areas of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts of Andhra Pradesh in India. There are a dozen other national languages.. . He came to the throne in 1312 and in his 25-year reign, the Kingdom of Mali expanded massively to include the current day nations of Senegal, Mali… French is the official language although it is rarely spoken as a first language. At the top of the hierarchy came the rulers or kings who held the maximum power and respect in the empire. Musa was born in 1280, and Mansa means ‘Sultan’ in the native language of Mandinka spoken in the region. It is believed that such settlements flourished here until the 10th or 11th Century AD. Activists are also teaching literacy to speakers of Manding languages (Bambara, Malinke, Maninkakan, Dyula) in the standardized N'Ko form. Most of the languages of Mali are among the Mande languages, which is generally accepted as a branch of Niger–Congo, Africa's largest language family. See language lists, maps, statistics, and more. In its use in schools, there is a new policy which demands that Malian languages should be used to teach students in their first grades. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. Linguistically, its nearest relatives are the Bozo languages, centered around the Inner Niger Delta. Another, Bamako Sign Language, developed in the after-work tea circles of the cities; it is threatened by the educational use of ASL. There are several Malian ethnic groups namely Mande, Fula, Voltaic (Senufo/Bwa), Tuareg/Moor, and Songhai among others. Of these, French is the official language and Bambara is the most widely spoken. It was retained as an official language when Mali attained its independence in 1960. French was introduced to Mali whilst under the control of France, which lasted up until September 1960. Other Mande languages (not in the Manding group) include Soninke (in the region of Kayes in western Mali) and the Bozo languages (along the middle Niger). The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita (c. 1214 – c. 1255) and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita. The rulers were the top class and all the other classes of individuals in the ancient MaliEmpire came under them. The name "Jula" is actually a Manding word meaning "trader."). The following table gives a summary of the 63 spoken languages reported by Ethnologue (there are also 3 sign languages): French is the official language. It begun under King Sundiata Keita in 1235 A.D who is the founder of the Empire, and peaking up under the king Mansa Musa who ruled the empire from 1312 A.D to 1337 A.D. Mali. French, which introduced during the colonial period, was retained as the official language at independence and is used in government and formal education. The internal problems continued to worsen as the inhabitants of newly conquered territory started to rebel. It is the one which is mostly used by the deaf population; threatening the Bamako Sign Language. The empire end up suffered and declined from bad ruling and others invasion around 1500 A.D The Swahili language came about as a result of trade between people from Arab lands and the Bantu people living along Africa's eastern coast. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. The capital and the largest city in Mali is called Bamako. Mande, Senufo, and Dogon stand out among Niger–Congo because of their deviant SOV basic word order. How did the Songhai Empire fall? For instance, in 1993, there were only 9,000 people who spoke French as a first language. Gold, salt, and fish. The Mali Empire was the second of three West African empires to emerge in the vast savanna grasslands located between the Sahara Desert to the north and the coastal rain forest in the south. Timbuktu was an important city in these empires because a lot of trade across the Sahara Desert went there. Its economy is pegged on fishing and agriculture. It later outgrew its political and military strength and by about 1550 ceased to be important as a political entity. However, the number of French speakers as the first language has increased over the years. One, Tebul Sign Language, is found in a village with a high incidence of congenital deafness. The Songhai, in about 1365, led the Mali city of Gao to independence. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of the region through the spread of its language, laws, and customs along lands adjacent to the Niger River, as well as other areas consisting of numerous vassal kingdoms and provinces. [citation needed] It is spoken mainly in central and Southern Mali. Non-Mande languages include the Dogon languages, perhaps another Niger–Congo branch, and the Senufo languages, which are unquestionably part of that family. 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